Clean Agent Suppression Systems using CO2 High Pressure

CO2 High Pressure

Carbon dioxide is a non-corrosive, odorless, colorless gas. During discharge, it presents as a white fog; it does not dirty or otherwise negatively affect the materials with which it comes into contact.
The principle of extinguishment is dual: CO2 acts by suffocation or oxygen dilution, reducing the concentration of the oxygen present in the area, and by the cooling caused by the rapid expansion of the gas.
Carbon dioxide must not be used for protecting normally-occupied areas, since inhalation can cause asphyxia even at low concentrations. Furthermore, visibility is greatly reduced during discharge due to the formation of CO2 fog. This extinguishing agent can be used in normally-unoccupied areas if suitable safety devices are installed.
After use of the extinguishing system, the area must be adequately ventilated; remember that since carbon dioxide is heavier than air, it accumulates in low-lying areas.
The carbon dioxide used in high-pressure fixed installations is stored in containers pressurized to 58.6 bar at 21°C. The distribution system is made up of a series of 67.5-liter capacity cylinders tested at 250 bar, charged using a filling coefficient of 0.75 kg/l or 0.67 kg/l, for which the maximum storage temperatures are 40°C and 50°C, respectively. A series of accessories, including rapid-flow valves, control handles, electro-pneumatic controls, manifolds, flexible hoses, nozzles, manual controls, delay valves, sirens, etc., complete the system.
The cylinders can be mounted on wall brackets or installed in a freestanding metal structure. Extinguishing agent leak tests are conducted by weighing. For continuous monitoring of cylinder charge status, EUROGARDIAN srl proposes a cylinder counterweight device or a floor-mounted scale.

-       Low filling costs
-       For use in total flooding systems and for local application
-       Suitable for use in the presence of deep-seated fires
-       Leaves no residues after discharge
-       Does not contribute to depleting the ozone layer
-       Does not conduct electricity
-       Forms no decomposition products in contact with flame
-       CO2 is the extinguishing gas most widely used in industrial applications

Some of the many fire-fighting applications for which CO2 is suitable are listed below.
-       Electrical equipment (machinery, transformers, etc.).
-       Painting booths, drying ovens/kilns, etc.
-       Electronic control units and data processing centers.
-       Closed storage areas, dust conduits and tunnels, etc.
-       Closed-frame spinning machines.
-       Silos.
-       Archives.
-       Liquids and gaseous materials.
-       Drawing mills, rolling mills.
-       Engine compartments.
-       Quenching tanks.

The TOTAL FLOODING system permits saturating a closed space with the concentration of carbon dioxide needed to obtain extinguishment. The types of fires that can be extinguished with the total flooding system are:
-       Surface fires: flammable liquids, gases, and/or solids.
-       Smoldering fires in combustible solid materials that may re-ignite. To forestall the risk of rekindling when the inert atmosphere dissipates, the extinction concentration must be maintained for the time required for the combustible material to cool.
Local application targets surface fires (flammable liquids, gases, and/or solids) in limited areas within ample volumes and provides an extinguishing action limited to the immediate area of the fire.
Discharge time for surface fires must not exceed 1 minute. For fires that produce deep-seated fires, the design concentration value can be achieved in about 7 minutes. For local applications, the discharge time must be at least 30 seconds.
The integrity of any volume protected by a total flooding system must be checked to locate and efficaciously seal any significant air leaks. Leaks can result in failure to maintain the specified concentration level of the extinguishing agent for the specified period of time. Verification of leaks must be conducted via the “Door Fan Test.”
EUROGARDIAN can supply pneumatically-actuated gravity closed louvers, tripped when the fire extinguishing system activates, to seal those openings that must remain open during normal use of the area.

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System design can be conducted in accordance with various international standards, thanks to dedicated software for calculating the discharge times and the calculating the cross-section diameters of the nozzle passages. The reference standards for system design are:
-       NFPA 12 Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
-       APSAD R13 Règle d’installation – Extinction automatique à gaz (Installation Specifications – Automatic Gas Extinguishing Systems)
-       ISO 6183 Fire Protection Equipment – Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems for Use on Premises – Design and Installation
-       CEA 4007 CO2 Systems Planning and Installation
-       VdS 2093 CO2-Feuerlöschanlagen (CO2 Fire Extinguishing Systems)
Chemical name Carbon dioxide
Chemical formula CO2
Density at 0° C and at 0.101 Mpa 1.98 kg/m3
Density with respect to air 1.5
Critical temperature 31 °C
Vapor tension at -18°C and 21°C 20.7 and 58.6 bar
Cylinder capacity 67.5 liters
External cylinder diameter 267 mm
Cylinder height 1600 mm
Complete cylinder weight 130 kg
Maximum filling coefficient 0.75 kg/liter
Design concentration for deep seated fires NFPA12 (% in volume)
Dry electrical hazards 50%, maintained for at least 20 minutes
Paper archives 65%, maintained for at least 20 minutes
Design concentration for liquid and gas fires NFPA12 (% in volume)
Methane, Diesel fuel, gasoline 34%
Ethanol 43%
Hydrogen 75%

The EUROGARDIAN srl ISO9001-certified quality system guarantees full product traceability. The extinguishing systems meet the requirements of the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED - 97/23/EC). The components meet the requirements of the PED, of the Construction Products Directive (CPD - 89/106/CE), and of the EN 12094-series standards.
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